Official Country Name: Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas)
Largest City: Quezon City
Languages: Tagalog (Filipino) and English are the main two. Other languages (recognised regional languages) include Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Pampango, Pangasinense and Waray. Other languages that are spoken (but not as much) include Spanish, Arabic, Japanese, Chinese and Korean.
Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Current Leader: Benigno Aquino III
National Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
National motto: "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa". It translates to "For God, People, Nature, and Country"
National Flower: Sampaguita
National Tree: Narra
National Bird: The Philippine Eagle
National Sport: Arnis (also known as Eskrima, Kali), which is the traditional martial arts of the Philippines
Human Name: Maricela Clara de los Santos (Maricela is a name used within the Philippines, with the 'Clara de los Santos' section being a direct reference to Maria Clara de los Santos known as Inang Pilipanas/Mother Philippines, the heroine of national hero Jose Rizal's book 'Noli me Tangere')
Nickname[s]: Maricela, Mari
Age Appearance: Eighteen
Birthday: April 27th (the date in which the Philippines was established) would be her technical birthday, but she prefers to celebrate her birthday on June 12th, the date in which she declared independence)
Personality: Philippines as a young girl was very much the outdoors child. She was rough, active and curious. She loves the outdoors and early on in her life, she began to adore nature. She has a strong fondness towards flowers and fruit in particular, with her addiction being mangoes especially. She also loved to go swimming a lot and climb trees and well, just about any outdoors activity she could think of back then. Also she loves animals and when she was younger, she'd keep trying to bring home animals to live with her. She also quickly developed a love for gardening. She was quite a typical tribal sort of girl from an early age.
At first, the idea of interacting with outsiders seemed ridiculous to her as outsiders would ruin the nature she'd been growing up with. So Philippines and her people were quite brutal towards outsiders, fighting them off so she could go back to enjoying her simple lifestyle. But as more and more people kept coming to her islands, Philippines eventually decided she'd try to give them a chance. She was very cautious towards people as a child and very nervous and awkward in interacting with them. But because she hadn't done much social interacting, her judgement of people was quite off. It let her get taken advantage of rather easily. This led to Philippines having trust issues. Her awkward, reserved nature was something that remained even in modern times.
She's so insistent about her independence because of the numerous times in history where she's tried to be open to someone only for them to trample over her. Spain did it, even America did it. It's left her rather bitter, but it also taught her how important it is for her to be able to rely on herself and be strong. She started out weak, but overtime, she grew more and more determined to become a stronger person. Philippines has a tendency to shoulder too many burdens and overestimate what she can do. She has a tendency to refuse help from others, even when she needs it most. This tends to set her back quite often, but with her history, it really does make her uneasy when people try and help her.
Philippines is a hardworking girl, who'll take on just about any job you give her. It seems she's more okay with helping others than letting others help her. She'll take on multiple jobs at once and end up overworking herself. This tends to mean she doesn't give herself a lot of free time. She wakes up early in the morning to get to work and ends up working most of that day. Philippines does take siestas sometimes, but she feels a little guilty if she takes one when there's still work to be done. Strangely enough, once she gets relaxed, she becomes really, really relaxed and doesn't get enough done. Then she scolds herself for it and tries to make up for it by working even harder.
She's become very skilled with domestic chores over the years and can cook a variety of different dishes. Also, she has developed a very questionable taste in food, with dishes such as balut (boiled pre-hatched poultry eggs) and camaro (cooked field crickets). Philippines adores her food and will try just about any meal there is. Though she doesn't quite understand why other nations are hesitant to try some of her dishes. Such dishes seemed so normal to her when growing up!
She is an optimist though, despite what she has been through in her past. She has a tendency to hide her insecurities as much as possible, refusing to burden others with her problems. But because of this, she can become quite isolated when going through hardship. She lives by the idea that if she works hard enough, things will eventually work out well. She's incredibly stubborn about this too and doesn't give up easily, not always seeing when she should back down. She has strong beliefs and follows through with them, even if they're not always 'right'. It's in this sense that she overestimates herself. She can be a tough cookie, but she's nowhere near invincible. But it's her optimism and her hard-working nature that makes her unable to give up. She likes to finish things that she's started and will berate herself if she can't complete the task at hand. And she feels that having a positive attitude is the key to success.
She isn't one to snap at other people too easily. Philippines prefers to keep the peace as much as possible, which can make her a bit of a pushover. However, when it really counts, she will stand up fiercely for what she believes in. When she was younger, she was much more outspoken and rebellious, what with the way she kept revolting against Spain and sometimes America in the past. She doesn't like being told that she doesn't have the ability to accomplish something. It seems like a challenge to her and she will go for it. Philippines is a hard-working optimist with a love for nature and strong beliefs in Catholicism, but even she isn't without her spunk. She knows some martial arts, so she's very capable of self-defense. It's rare that she actually hurts anybody nowadays though.
Because of her strong beliefs in her religion and general Asian culture, Philippines isn't the best with romance. She spent so long focusing on gaining independence that she's the biggest friend-zone girl ever, actually. Philippines wishes to save herself for marriage and she's not used to the idea of others being interested in her romantically. She likes the idea of romance, but she hasn't learned much about it. Her inability to trust easily and the fact she's quite awkward means she ends up very flustered when people are affectionate with her or try to bring up romance with her. She finds it easier to avoid the subject altogether, actually. Not to mention, her lack of knowledge has made her rather oblivious which is probably how she's ended up the biggest friend-zoner type. That flustered nature though; it has been known to put Philippines in very awkward situations where she blurts out the wrong things at the wrong times, or make ridiculous attempts to change the subject. It's a bit of a problem.
Philippines does have a very mixed culture, which is due to her upbringing. She engages in martial arts and loves to practise it against the other Asian nations. But she also loves to play sports such as football, basketball and boxing. It often surprises the other nations that she's got a damn mean punch. She's also quite good at basketball, which is also surprisingly considering her height and build. But the Philippines has some quite good records in both those sports. However, in football, she's not so good. She's never entered any World Tournaments, not even qualifying for the Asia Cup. It was considered a shock when she defeated Vietnam once. Still, Philippines does enjoy her sport. It reminds her of when she used to be more active in her youth.
Philippines loves music a lot. She knows a lot of her traditional folk dances and folk songs, often singing them to herself as she's hard at work. But she likes a variety of music, enjoying not just her own country's music, but she's very fond of America's musicians too. Karaoke is very popular in the Philippines and she loves to invite visiting nations to do karaoke with her. She is quite modest about her singing ability though and doesn't like to boast though she is talented at it! She's also learned a variety of dances from Spain too. She practises a lot, making her quite a good dance partner.
In terms of modernising herself, Philippines is rather a mixed bag. She has very much taken to the idea of cellphones and loves to text a lot after all, it means she can work hard but still hold conversations with her friends! She has been working hard to westernise herself, but she's ended up spending more time on her agriculture. She loves her country's scenery and she loves her gardens, which has left her cities to be rather untidy. Her cities are quite bad for pollution and her infrastructure is underdeveloped, but recently she's been trying to find ways to improve with that and clean up her cities.
In terms of literature, Philippines is becoming more literate. She actually didn't learn how to read until later in the Spanish colonisation period. Her literature varies in languages mostly Tagalog, English and Spanish. She's better at reading Spanish than she is at speaking it. When it came to stories, she was often told them rather than her having to read them. In her younger days, she was especially into mythology and superstition. But then as she became more Catholic, Philippines paid attention to it less and less, not believing in it as much as she used to.
To summarise, Philippines is an optimistic, hardworking girl who strives to be fiercely independent as she goes about life. She can be rather reserved and awkward, but she does want to work hard and make friends with those around her, even if she does find it hard to really trust them. She has a stubborn streak, but also hints of naivety, that can lead to her getting in trouble.
Body: She has a rather petite sort of build. She's very slim in figure, though her arms and legs have gotten stronger over the years due to all the hard work she puts into her daily life. Her figure could be described as boyish straight up and down, lacking majorly in the chest area. She also has quite small feet.
Hair: She has dark brown hair (in certain light it looks black), which is often pulled back into a high ponytail with strands left framing her face. She wears a sampaguita flower right by her left ear (right from our point of view) and has a flowery hair tie for her ponytail. She also has bangs that stop just above her eyes.
Eyes: Her eyes are just an ordinary brown.
Accent: She has a Filipino accent, which sometimes makes her English speaking sound rather awkward. She has a slight habit for picking up accents and phrases when she spends a lot of time with someone. She had phases of sounding like a Spaniard, sounding like a Brit and sounding like an American before adopting her very own accent and speech patterns.
Outfit (Military): In modern times, Philippines' military uniform is green with a camouflage pattern consisting of a jacket and matching pants. She wears a black shirt underneath and wears a matching cap. She also wears black lace-up boots that go above the ankle but below the knee. However, one of her other uniforms is black with a grey and white pixelised pattern.
Outfit (Casual): Her usual outfit is a kimona dress, featuring a long red skirt, a pale green shirt with red detailing on the sleeves and a blue tank top underneath and brown sandals. Philippines tends to wear clothes suited for tropical weather, so she uses very light fabrics. She loves wearing bright colours and floral patterns best and has quite the swimsuit collection. However, she does prefer to cover up she never wears low cut tops or really short dresses/skirts/shorts, though she might do so on a really hot day and she's spending most of her day at home, relaxing. Her favourite colours are red, blue, yellow and green, so most of her wardrobe features clothes in those colours.
Outfit (Other[s]): She does wear a variety of traditional costumes. Notably, she owns the Maria Clara gown, and baro't sayas of many different colours. She also owns a Mestiza dress, an Igorot costume, some Philippine muslim attire, a malong and many other traditional Philippine tribal costumes.
Tattoos: She has a Lingling-o tattoo on her left wrist below her palm.
Piercings: She has one piercing in each ear lobe, though she does not wear earrings often.
Jewellery: She wears a cross necklace always, sometimes over her clothing, sometimes under her clothing.
Australia: Australia and Philippines get along well, with the former being the second largest provider of defense training to the latter. They've signed over agreements as well and their friendship traces back to World War Two when Australia helped liberate Philippines from Japan's control. They have had trading disputes before though, when in 2000 Australia wasn't sure about importing Philippines' bananas. In response, Philippines banned the importing of Australian beef. They have since improved relations from there, though Philippines hasn't agreed to Australian military occupation and it's currently uncertain if she will or not.
Brazil: Brazil and Philippines have been signing agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture. They get on fine, but they aren't close or anything.
Brunei: Brunei and Philippines knew each other way before Spanish colonisation and were childhood friends. But then they got separated for the most part. However, their relations started up again and they had many agreements signed between the two. The two often reminisce over the past together prior to Spain's arrival, but otherwise they don't relate to one another as well as they used to.
Canada: Philippines and Canada only met recently, within the last century. They get along pretty well, with Philippines being Canada's second largest agricultural-food export market in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, she doesn't always notice him because she'd interacted far more with his brother America.
China: China used to be a huge influence on the Philippines and Filipino culture before Spanish colonisation. They did trade with one another before then. However, during Spanish colonisation, Chinese pirates were a common threat to the archipelago and Philippines developed a dislike towards China because of them. In fact, Philippines assisted Spain in fighting them off and killing Chinese merchants as to prevent the threat of China taking over the Philippines. They established diplomatic relations in 1975, but lots of tension remains. They have disputes in relation to the Spratly Islands, but are slowly beginning to improve their relations with consultations and agreement signings.
Croatia: Croatia and Philippines have agreements in regards to culture and sports. This is to help pave the way for better interactions between the people of both countries.
Denmark: Denmark and Philippines get on well, having strong maritime relations as well as Denmark being a significant ally in Philippines' renewable energy sources and wind energy. He's also loaned her money to help improve her environment and recover from losses due to floods, etc. There was some tension in 2006 however, when Filipino Muslims set fire to the Danish flag in protest to condemn the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.
East Timor: Philippines helped East Timor with gaining independence. The two have gotten well since, relating particularly well due to being the only Asian nations with a Catholic majority. Philippines has also been helping East Timor with military training and assisting in peace keeping missions.
France: France permitted Philippine national hero Jose Rizal to live in France while he wrote novels 'Noli me Tangere' (famous for inspiring the Philippines Revolution) and 'El Filibusterismo'. These books were also inspired by the French author Alexandre Dumas. The Treaty of Amity established diplomatic relations between the two countries, with France sponsoring many fashion shows, film festivals, art exhibits, wine launches and concerts in the Philippines.
Greece: Greece and Philippines get along okay, having trading and economic relations with one another. Many Filipinos live in Greece, making them one of Greece's largest foreign communities.
Hong Kong: They engage in trade with one another, but recently, relations have been strained due to the hostage incident in which Hong Kong tourists were killed. Hong Kong was angry at the Philippines and listed her as a bad country for tourists to go to. They're slowly trying to patch things up.
India: India and Philippines knew one another before Spanish colonisation and did trade with each other. There are Indian influences in Philippines' early culture, particularly in regards to literature and mythology. When both countries attained independence, they signed a Treaty of Friendship. In the 60th anniversary of Philippine-Indian relations, November 2009 was declared Philippines-India Friendship Month. Though oddly enough, in a BBC poll in 2006, 57% of Filipinos considered India a negative influence in the world due to the antipathy against migrant Indians in the Philippines.
Iran: Iran and Philippines have only started getting along recently, having collaborated on contributing towards better understanding among nations through interfaith dialogue and co-operation. Many Iranians are living in the Philippines also.
Ireland: Ireland and Philippines began to interact when there was a flow of Irish catholic missionaries to the Philippines in the 1800s. However they actually only started diplomatic relations in 1984. But the catholic ties are so strong that Philippines has apparently been described as "a sort of Catholic Ireland located off the coast of Asia".
Israel: Philippines was the only Asian nation to vote for a partition resolution recommending a Jewish State in Palestine. Since then, Philippines and Israel have had good relations with one another.
Japan: Japan and Philippines' relations started out good, with the two getting along especially well during the Spanish colonisation period. However, that all turned incredibly sour during World War Two. Philippines felt hurt and developed hatred towards Japan that lasted even after she was freed from his control. His treatment of her was harsh and she was never going to forgive it easily. After World War Two, Japan worked hard to win back Philippines' friendship. He apologised a lot and has since become a key trade partner of the Philippines. However, they are still very awkward with another. They are friendlier now, but Philippines still feels somewhat of a resentment towards him.
Laos: Recently, the two had commemorated 55 years of friendly bilateral relations. They get along well and have recently set up the Philippines-Laos Business Council.
Malaysia: Malaysia and Philippines have a history of close economic and political relations. They don't relate very well in terms of religion, but Malaysia has helped the Muslim insurgency in Mindanao. In a way, Malaysia is considered a relative of the Philippines due to being ethnically similar. However the two have had disputes over North Borneo, which suspended relations a few times. They've also bickered over claims of parts of the Spratly Islands.
Mexico: The two shared a close bond during Spanish colonisation. Both related to one another a lot, especially with their religious ties and desire for independence from Spain. The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was set up between the two so they saw each other regularly. Mexico also sent lots of money to the Philippines when they struggled to pay taxes and such to Spain. However, the Galleon Trade was broken up when Mexico declared independence from Spain. They didn't see a lot of each other after that, not until World War Two where Mexico assisted America and Australia in liberating Philippines from Japanese rule. Diplomatic ties were formalised in 1953 and 1964 was declared the year of Mexico-Filipino Friendship. They have many agreements with one another also.
Netherlands: He is one of Philippines' biggest trading partners within the EU and had a history of trade. However, they did not get along very well during the Eighty Years War, back when Netherlands attacked the Philippines as a tactic to take away some of Spain's forces.
New Zealand: Philippines and New Zealand get along fairly well, having fought alongside one another during the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the War on Terror. The NZ police are currently helping the Philippine National Police combat methamphetamine, as well as helping with their training.
Nigeria: Nigeria has helped Philippines find work, while Philippines have been helping Nigerians with their education. However there was a deployment ban made in 2006 by the Philippines to Nigeria due to kidnappings of Filipino seafarers. This caused tension between the two for a while, but the ban was lifted in 2009.
North Korea: Relations were finally established between the two in 2000, but trade is non-existent between the two. They are slowly getting along better but overall they are awkward with one another, especially since Philippines has always supported South Korea more ever since the Korean War.
Pakistan: Pakistan and Philippines have been getting along well recently, having signed four agreements recently. Pakistan has also ensured Philippines full support in ending the old rebellion going on in the southern islands of Mindanao.
Palau: Palau and Philippines got along well, but things became awkward when, due to economic reasons, Philippines planned to close her embassy within Palau. Palau's president said he was "extremely disheartened"; especially since he believed Filipino workers were a vital component to Palau's economy. Maritime borders have also yet to be settled between the two countries.
Papa New Guinea: In 2009, both countries entered a Memorandum of Understanding that would enhance their relations through fisheries. The Memorandum intends to facilitate technology transfer in aquaculture development, promotion of shipping ventures, investments, technical training, joint research and strategic complementation of each country's plans within the waters between Philippines, Indonesia and the Pacific Islands.
Romania: Relations between the two nations started in 1975 started when Philippines began to open relations with socialist countries more. They have made agreements with one another and celebrated three decades of diplomatic relations in 2002 with festivities in Bucharest and Manila.
Russia: Philippines and Russia did not get along particularly well at first, particularly during the Cold War era. This was due to the fact that Philippines sided with America the entire time and joined in with speaking out against communism, even starting up SEATO to prevent the spread of communism. However, when Philippines began to open up more to socialist nations in the 1970s, Russia and Philippines began to get along better.
South Korea: South Korea is one of Philippines' largest trading partners. They are very good friends nowadays, with Philippines having supported South Korea many times from the Korean War onwards. Korea also contributes a lot more to Philippines' tourist industry than any other country, also having many of his people move there. Philippines found it rather odd that he liked visiting her place so much, but she developed a fondness for Korean fashion, television and music in the process.
Spain: History between her and Spain is rather messy. Spain kept visiting when she just wanted him to go away. She decided to give him a chance to befriend her tribes, but he ended up making her one of his colonies. His treatment towards her was harsh and she developed a strong dislike towards him. She did fight alongside him at times, more because she felt forced to, rather than because she wanted to personally. She revolted against his rule often. Nonetheless, she still ended up adopting much of his culture, including his religion. In some ways, she was becoming more set-up as a nation thanks to Spain, but she wished for independence more. After she gained independence, she didn't interact with him as much for a long time. In recent times, her relations with Spain have improved. June 30th has been declared Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day, which is a clear sign that they get along much better now.
Taiwan: Philippines recognises the One China Policy, but has relations with Taiwan. They do a lot of trade and tourism with one another. But in 2011, Philippines angered Taiwan by deporting 15 of her people back to China on the account of them being drug pushers. Taiwan demanded an apology and relations were strained. They're starting to get on a little better since the incident.
Thailand: Thailand and Philippines get along well. Relations were established in 1949 and have strengthened since then. Thailand is one of Philippines' major trade partners and one of her main sources of rice.
UK: England and Philippines did not start out with the best of relations. He occupied Manila for about three years and she spent most of that time revolting against him to prevent him spreading out over her land. However, he seemed to be quite supportive of her revolts against Spain. Still, she didn't particularly like either England or Spain being around, thus why she just kept revolting at the time. Nowadays they have good relations with one another, with England being one of the largest foreign investors in the Philippines.
USA: Philippines started out thinking America was a cool person, who helped her out heaps with helping her gain independence from Spain. But quickly she has felt betrayed by him. Instead of granting her independence, America took over her country instead. This angered her lots she had worked so hard to gain independence from Spain, that America taking it from her again was a huge insult to her. Naturally, she revolted against him too, leading to the Philippine-American War. America was quite brutal to her during the war and she ended up having to surrender to him. This war wasn't something that America remembers well, but it would forever be significant to Philippines, who gets very patriotic when thinking about it. After the war, interactions with him afterwards were rather tense and awkward. But slowly, the two began to warm to her and America was beginning to understand her point of view a little more. They became friends and America promised her that she would get her independence. She found that through spending time with him, she developed some of his cultural influence the same way she was influenced by Spain in the past. America and Philippines are now very good friends; though she doesn't always trust him (he really did flounder and take his time with granting that independence for her). They have fought alongside each other a lot World War One and Two, the Korean War, Vietnam War, etc. Filipino-American Friendship Day is celebrated on July 4th, coinciding with America's Independence Day.
Vietnam: During the Cold War, relations were tense between the Philippines and Vietnam. But since then, their relations have improved and they're now economic allies. They are trying to find ways to turn the Spratly Island situation from conflict to co-operation. Vietnam was sometimes considered Philippines' only communist military ally, with the two carefully monitoring China in making sure he isn't a threat towards one another.
Past Caretakers: The Malays, Spain, England (briefly), America, Japan
Prehistoric Times (Pre-Colonisation)
In 25,000 B.C. - the Ancient Negroid people used a land bridge to immigrate the Philippines and connect the archipelago with the Asian mainland.
5, 000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C. Malays (today's Indonesians) came to the archipelago.
3,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. A second wave of Malay immigrants arrive by ship, making up the ancestors of today's Ifugao, Bontoc, Mangyans, and other tribes.
200 B.C. to 1000 A.D. Large numbers of more civilised Malays migrate to the Philippines. Artistry begins in the Philippines, including jewellery being made and body tattoos. 982 A.D. is considered the approximate time when China started trade with the Philippines.
1,000 A.D. to 1,200 A.D. Trading begins with other countries such as India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. This also marked the beginning of Philippines' emergent phase, which as well as trading, also saw the Philippines develop her culture more, have more progressive communities, develop writing and increase the number of iron tools to use.
1300 to 1400. - The Hindu empire of Majapahit on Java starts to gain control over the islands.
1380. - The first Islamic missionary arrives in the Philippines. There were many visits, which caused the religion to spread throughout. Around 1405, Japan established a trading post at Aparri.
1500. - The Sultanate of Brunei attacked the Kingdom of Tondo and established a city named Selurong, which shall become today's Manila.
1521 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition and arrives on Homonhon Island on March 16th. On March 28th, he then reaches Limasawa Island and befriends Rajah Kulambo, solemnizing a blood compact with him. This led to the very first mass celebration in the Philippines. Then Magellan goes to Cebu Island and enters a new blood compact with Rajah Humabon. However, twenty days later he is killed in battle by Lapu-Lapu, chieftain of Mactan, which is an island near Cebu.
1525. Spain sends a new expedition over to the Philippines, led by Juan Garcia Jofre de Loasia. He expected to find gold and spices but failed. Many members of this crew die during the expedition, mostly from either the natives killing them or they died of illness/food poisoning.
1526. Spain tries to send a third expedition to the Philippines but fails, mostly due to them wasting time in South America trying to find a new route to the East.
1527. A fourth expedition is sent by Spain, led by Alvaro de Saavedra Ceron. It's the first Spanish expedition, which begins from today's Mexico. They reach Mindanao, but on their way to Cebu, Saavedra's ship is carried by the wind to the Moluccas instead. They return to Spain in 1529, but Saavedra died on the way back.
1543 The next Spanish expedition arrives in the Philippines, led by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. He gives the Philippines her name in honour of King Charles I's son Philip II of Spain. He settles there for eight months before leaving again due to the lack of food.
1565 The next Spanish expedition led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrives in the Philippines on February 13th. At first he has to deal with hostile natives, but after some movement Legazpi gains ground. On May 8th, the Island of Cebu surrenders, allowing for Legazpi to establish the first Spanish settlement and become the first Spanish Governor-General. Tributes are collected from all Filipino males aged 19-60. The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade is also set up between Mexico and Philippines, with Mexico (New Spain at the time) being in charge of the Philippines Government.
1568-1570 The Portuguese, commanded by General Gonzalo de Pereira, attack the island of Cebu and its port. They attack again on 1570. This was due to Portugal's claim on the territory based on the Treaty of Tordisillas, believing that the Philippines falls within their claim sphere. That same year, Legazpi sends an expedition to Manila and Marten de Goiti (the leader of said expedition) wins the friendship of Rajah Suliman.
1571-1572. - Rajah Suliman declares war on the Spaniards, but his troops get defeated, with de Goiti's army occupying Manila. Legazpi declares Manila to be the capital of the Philippines. He dies a year later and Guido de Lavezares becomes the new governor. He extends the Spanish colonisation to the Bicol region.
1574. Chinese pirates lead an attack on Manila, but Spain and the Philippines win the battle. A month later, they try again but still cannot win. In Tondo, which is now a district of Manila, Bunaw Lakandula leads a revolt against the Spanish. Due to the attacks of the Chinese Pirates, Lakandula and his revolters were quickly granted their privileges.
1580. King Philip II receives the Portuguese throne, which puts an end to Portugal's harassment of the Philippines. Spain also institutes forced labour on the Filipino male natives.
1590. Japanese pirates also trouble the Philippines, with Japan's kampaku Toyotomi Hideyoshi insisting that the Philippines submit to Japan's suzerainty. Japan and Philippines managed to become peaceful trading partners for now.
1599. The Referendum of 1599 legitimised Spain's sovereignty over the Philippines.
1601. The Igorot Revolt. This was a revolt against religious conversion to Christianity, which failed. Those who took part in revolting were executed.
1603. - The Chinese Revolt of 1603 (the Sangley Rebellion) occurred when the Spanish killed many Chinese merchants. They were supported by Philippines and Japan and it was to prevent China from controlling Philippines.
1621-43. - The Tamblot Revolt and the Bancao Revolt occurred, which were uprisals against Spanish colonisation and the forced religion. Both of them failed. Then in 1625-27 was the Itneg Revolt. In 1639 was the Cagayan Revolt and in 1643 was the Ladia Revolt.
1646. Netherlands attacked the Philippines during the Eighty Years War against Spain. Spain and the Philippines combined forces to fight off the Netherlands.
1649-50. These were the years of the Sumuroy Revolt. This was significant as this revolt spread quite far throughout the Philippines. From here continued Philippines' dislike towards Spain. This was often considered the beginning of the end of Spanish rule over the Philippines.
1660-61. The Maniago Revolt, Malong Revolt and the Almazon Revolt took place during these years. They were defeated.
1662. The threat of the Chinese pirates began again and the anti-Chinese sentiment was very much prominent as the people killed many of the Chinese in Manila.
1663-1719. The Panay Revolt occurred, but was defeated quickly. In 1981-83, the Sambal Revolt occurred when Spain wanted to finish defeating the roots of the earlier rebellions. Chiefs had to convert to Catholicism. Then there was the Tingco Plot (1686), the Rivera Revolt, the Magtangaga Revolt (1718) and the Caragay Revolt (1719). All not very successful.
1744. The Dagohay Revolt occurs and it's one of the more successful revolts, as there were more Filipino survivors who were allowed to live in new villages. This revolt was different in that it wasn't for religious purposes, but focused on Spanish oppression. Francisco Dagohay, the leader of the revolt proved to be an inspiration to the Philippines.
1762-64. Britain invaded the Philippines, occupying Manila during the Seven Years War. However, strong Filipino resistance of Britain prevented the occupation from spreading. There was the Silang Revolt, which did side with the British against the Spanish, but it failed. There was also the Cebu Revolt, the Camarines Revolt, the Dabo and Marayac Revolt, the Isabela Revolt and the Palaris Revolt against Spain. Overall though, Philippines were opposed to the British occupation. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, which would declare that Britain had to withdraw from Manila. Britain finally left in 1764.
1765-1881. During this period were even more revolts: Lagutao Revolt (1785), Ilocos Norte Revolt (1788), Magtanong and Malibiran Revolt (1787), Nueva Vizcaya Revolt (1805), Ambaristo Revolt (1807), Ilocos Norte Revolt (1811), Sarat Revolt (1815), Bayot Revolt (1822), Novales Mutiny (1823), Parang and Upay Revolt (18221835), Pule Revolt (18401841), Camerino Revolt (18651869) and the Labios Revolt (18701871). The Novales Mutiny is notable the likes of Jose Rizal later on and inspired more Filipino nationalism. Also during 1809, Filipinos are given privileges of Spanish citizenship as well as more representation in the Spanish government. However, this gets abolished in 1816. During this time, agriculture, education and trade is increased. In 1863, wealthier Filipinos began to study abroad. In terms of Hetalia, this is when Philippines got to go overseas for a while to see Spain and meet other Spanish colonies (not just Mexico!). This led to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which allowed for bigger trade between the Philippines and Europe.
1872 This was the time of the Cavite Mutiny. Spain won, which led to Filipinos being sent to Hong Kong, Marianas and other places. But ultimately, it led to the Philippines to develop more nationalism and become more inspired for the upcoming Philippine Revolution.
1887 - Philippines national hero Jose Rizal publishes the book Noli me Tangere in Berlin. This book exposes the corruption and abuse of the Philippines by the Spanish government. It created not only Filipino national pride, but its characters became cultural icons, notably Maria Clara.
1892. The anti-Spanish group the Katipunan was started up. They were a secret organisation with the utmost goal of gaining independence for the Philippines from Spain. They tried to gain support from Japan but failed due to the uncovering of the organisation.
1896. The Philippine Revolution begins against Spain. The first battle takes place at San Juan del Monte. Rizal is kept as prisoner and interrogated for partaking in the uprising. He is executed on December 30th, 1896. He is remembered today as the Philippines National Hero.
1897. However, the revolution continues. The leader of the Katipunan, Emilio Aguinaldo establishes a Philippine government in Biak-na-Bato. Negotiations between him and the Spanish occur and the Pact of Biak-na-Bato is signed. Aguinaldo and his companions are forced to surrender and are exiled to Hong Kong.
1898. The Katipunan is revived by Emilio Jacinto and Feliciano Jocson. The US government offer support to the Filipinos for their independence. The USA declare war on Spain in that same year, allowing for Aguinaldo and his companions to return to the Philippines. This year was also the end of Spanish colonisation, with Philippines proclaiming independence on June 12th. The Philippines flag is officially raised for the first time along with the Philippines National Anthem being publically played. A revolutionary government is made, with the Malolos Republic being institutionalised in order to make Philippines' independence be recognised by the other nations. However, the 1898 Treaty of Paris has Spain sell the Philippines to America for under 20 million dollars.
First independence, US Colonisation
1899-1901. The United States declares supremacy over the Philippines, which caused tension between the two countries. This leads to the Philippine-American War. This war was harsh and many lives were lost, especially on the Philippine side. Eventually the Philippine side loses, causing the Philippines to become an unincorporated territory of the United States. A civil government is established in the Philippines with William Howard Taft as the first US Governor-General. Tension still exists between the two. The Sedition Law is made, imposing the death penalty on anyone who advocates independence or separation from the United States.
1902-07. - General Macario Sakay establishes his own Tagalog Republic in 1902. In 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto that declared Filipino rights to self-determination, but he and his followers were arrested and executed. In 1906, there was an extermination of Filipino muslims. In 1907, the Philippine Assembly was set up.
1908-1916. After the set-up of the Philippine Assembly, Philippines expressed her desire for independence. Philippine nationalists such as Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmena endorsed the draft Jones Bill of 1912, which would provide Philippines with independence in eight years. But then their minds were changed to focus on the independence conditions to allow for absolute independence. This was due to fear that if they went independent too quickly, Japan may try to take over. The Jones Bill was rewritten and passed through Congress in 1916. The law, known as either the Jones Law or the Philippine Autonomy Act, stated that Philippines' eventual independence would become an American policy.
1914-1918. During most of the First World War, Philippines suspended the independence campaign to support America against Germany.
1919. Philippines went on a mission to America to present her case as part of the pre-requisite to achieving independence. America further stated that due to this mission, it was his duty to ensure Philippines her independence.
1922-34. More missions were made over to the United States. They involved submitting more independence bills to US Congress. In 1933, the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act became US Law, which promised the Philippines independence in ten years time. This law meant that Philippines would have independence, but America could have many military and naval bases on her land and impose on Philippine exports. However, Philippines ended up disagreeing and negotiations were done. In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Act was made, which would allow for the transitional period of Philippines becoming independent from America and be completed by 1946.
1935-1940. In 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was created. This new government looked forward to many great improvements, such as better national defense, greater economy control, education reforms, improvement over transportation, Philippine colonisation over the island of Mindanao, and promotion of local capital and industrialisation. The diplomatic/military situation was uncertain though, as well as the level of America's commitment towards the future Republic of the Philippines.
1941-42. The Battle of the Philippines took place between 1941-42 (during World War Two). America and Philippines teamed up to defend Japan from taking over Philippine lands. However, Japan won and occupied the Philippine archipelago. Also, the Battle of Bataan took place during 1942, which resulted badly for the Philippines. The outcome was the Bataan Death March, in which the American and Filipino prisoners of war marched to Balanga. They were mistreated and ultimately executed.
1944-45. US General Douglas MacArthur finally gathers up enough troops to begin the Philippine Campaign. America, along with Australia and Mexico worked together to liberate the Philippines from Japanese occupation. Japan lost control of the Philippines.
1946. The Treaty of Manila was signed, granting Philippines full independence at last on July 4th. There were still numerous strings attached though for example, the Bell Trade Act prevented the Philippines from manufacturing or selling any products that would come into competition with American goods. America refused to give rebuilding funds until Philippines agreed to the act. Manuel Roxas became the first Philippine President of the new republic.
1948-53. Roxas died of a heart attack and was replaced by Elpidio Quirino. During his years as president, he faced threats from the communist Hukbalahap movement that threatened to overthrow the government. In 1950, Philippines sent soldiers to aid (South) Korea in the Korean War.
1953-57. Ramon Magsaysay was the President during this time and supported the United States in the Cold War, speaking out against communism. He created the Manila Pact, otherwise known as the South East Asia Treaty Organisation, which aimed to defeat Communism/Marxism movements in South East Asia. Other countries that were involved in SEATO included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the United States. Magsaysay died in a plane crash in 1957.
1964 Philippines changed the date of independence celebration from July 4th to June 12th.
1968. Philippines sent over 10, 000 soldiers to join the Anti-Communist Forces in the Vietnam War.
1971. The Plaza Miranda Bombing occurred in Quiapo, Manila. The Liberal Party had a campaign rally to proclaim their candidate and Senatorial bets when grenades were tossed up onstage.
1972-81 With the growth of the communist party the New People's Army, Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines president of the time) decided to introduce martial law. During this time, a parliamentary government was introduced.
1986-92. The first female President Corazon Aquino takes office in 1986. She helped to restore democracy in the Philippines. However, economic growth wasn't helped by a set of natural disasters in the country. In 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted. Also, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed 10 more years of American military presence in the Philippines.
1995. Philippines has a standoff with China over the Chinese building structures on Mischief Reef in the Spratly Islands, which was claimed by the Philippines as Kalayaan Islands.
2003. A military mutiny known as the Oakwood Mutiny occurred, causing president of the time Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to declare a month-long state of rebellion.
2009. Typhoon Ketsana passes through the Philippines, along with China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. Over 400 deaths were confirmed in the Philippines. The Maguindanao massacre occurs, with the victims being Esmael Mangudadatu and his family, close friends, journalists, lawyers, aides and motorists.
2010-Present. Benigno Aquino III becomes the President of the Philippines. In this same year, the Manila Hostage Crisis occurred, in which 8 Hong Kong tourists were taken hostage and then killed. This caused anti-Filipino sentiments within Hong Kong. Also Typhoon Megi hits the Philippines, causing lots of damage in Luzon.